Město Hořovice

History in detail


History of the Town

Residential unit with a manorial court, or a fortress, was established in Hořovice no later than in the middle of the 12th century, at the end of early medieval colonization wave, which henceforth defined residential and communication structure of our country. An exceptional finding - a denar from times of Břetislav I. - in the valley of Červený Creek indicates even older, but probably only meaningless, settlement. In written sources we can notice the name Hořovice later in the 13th century, and that is in connection with some members of noble family Žirotín from Hořovice, who held significant offices in royal services of Wenceslas I.
            The Žirotín family is considered to be the founder of the town. The deed of foundation was not preserved, because it probably burned during an extensive fire of the town in 1540, which also destroyed other municipal documents including all privileges. Its transcript was probably still known in the mid-17th century, because a fragment was preserved by a former regent of Martinic domain, Jakub Veltruský from Veltruby, in his urbary from 1648.

Soon after being founded, the town of Hořovice was divided among the Žirotín family, and this division originates many historical uncertainties related to domain owners. The Hořovice court was proved to be a place of birth of the last member of the Luxembourg family, Eliška Zhořelecká, in 1390.  Coat of arms of the town was derived from these oldest families.  Half of the sign represents the Žirotín eagle, and the second half consists of three beams in Luxembourg colors - silver, blue and silver.  
            Hořovice were in possession of Lords of Říčany in the 16th century. The most important of them, Václav Litvín, who lived in the period of humanism (1565 - 1596), founded an extensive library in Hořovice. He was an imperial counselor, governor of Brdy, and, at the end of his life, he was also a court-judge and the highest steward. However, Václav's son Jan Litvín lost the Hořovice domain. As a representative of rebel nobility, he took part in the Prague defenestration in 1618 - He actively participated in defenestration of provincial governor Jaroslav Bořita of Martinice out of a Prague Castle window - and after the defeat of Bohemian uprising on Bílá Hora, all of his properties were confiscated. The Martinic family confiscated Hořovice then. Although they were never settled down in Hořovice, they contributed in foundation of local monastery, Church of the Most Holy Trinity and Chapel of the Virgin Mary of Loretto. Even in times of Bernard Ignatius of Martinice, a new comfort residence was being built in the neighborhood of the castle. At the end of the 17th century, lords of Vrbno and Bruntál, a noble family from Silesia, came to Hořovice. The first of them, Count John Francis (1634 - 1705), who gained the Hořovice Domain after his marriage to daughter of Bernard Ignatius of Martinice, finished the construction of so-called New Chateau. Lords of Vrbno stayed in Hořovice until the middle of the 19th century. Last owner of the Hořovice Domain from this family was Count Dominic (1811 - 1876), who sold it to Elector of Hesse Frederick William I., Count of Hanau (1802 - 1875) in 1852. His descendants owned the chateau, and partly also the domain, until 1945. The last noble owner of the chateau was Count Henry Schaumburg and his family. After the end of World War II, the chateau was confiscated by the government on the basis of Benes decrees, and it has been managed by the state until these days.

            In the mid-19th century, nobility did not represent authority for inhabitants of the town like it used to be before. The town hosted some of the most important manorial and autonomous authorities, namely C. K. Regional Commission for judicial districts Beroun and Hořovice, C. K. District Court, Municipal Council, District Council and many others. However, the latter two institutions of self government were constituted properly after the revolution in 1848, respectively after the renewal of constitution of the Habsburg Monarchy in mid-60s of the 19th century. The Town Council was composed of twenty, and of twenty-four later in 90s, burghers.  Since 1865, the District Council had been elected by a wealthier part of the population for three years, and it was composed of the congregation of thirty. 
In 1862, Hořovice obtained a rail connection to Prague and Pilsen via the Czech Western Railway. The first train of the company Czech Western Railways arrived in Hořovice on 14th July 1862.

Development in the area required a number of other public buildings, such as the Town Hall (1904 - 1905), Normal School (1928 - 1930) and District Office (1930 - 1932). In post-war years, the town lived for building a new hospital. After 1960, when the separate Hořovice District was canceled, the town, as a former regional center, somewhat faded into the background of interest.

 Present Day
          This situation changed significantly in early 1990s. After the state administration reform in 2003, Hořovice was, as so-called small district, entrusted with its administration in many ways once again.

         After 1989, the town of Hořovice has undertaken several costly investment actions for extension and maintenance of infrastructure and local amenities. Realization of the largest construction in modern history of the town was completed - a retirement home Na Výsluní for 72 senior citizens and a nursing home for 35 senior citizens. Hořovice hospital, which still successfully resists problems in current health-care system, takes care of their health. In its renowned maternity hospital, new citizens, local or from the surrounding area, are given birth. Naturally, they take an advantage of the possibility to visit primary or specialized schools and graduate from high school.
         Peripheral parts of Hořovice have also changed unrecognizably, because in recent years, in cooperation with private investors, the town hall has built houses and appartments. As a result of social and economic changes at the end of the 20th century, plants operated by traditional manufacturers such as ČKD were abandoned, and their places were taken by new investors with foreign capital relatively quickly. On the western edge of the town, there appeared modern production halls of companies TEDOM, Sekurit Saint Gobain; business premises of former ČSAD were obtained by the largest transport company in the region PROBO TRANS, spol. s. r. o. 





History and sights


Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su
27 28 29 30 31 1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30